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The subject of forecasting is defined at the first development stage of the forecast according to the purposes and tasks of the forecast. Forecasts of a commodity environment are classified by types of goods or commodity groups, and also as expected indicators.

Level of competitiveness is defined external, in relation to goods, factors and characteristics by not caused its properties: delivery time, quality of service, increase ( competitiveness of the competing goods, change of a ratio of supply and demand, financial conditions and other told are confirmed by the scheme given below.

Division of goods into two categories – goods of production appointment and goods of consumer appointment – furnishes the clue to understanding of features of supply and demand in the concrete market and its segments, nature of fluctuations of market conditions which with a special force are found on different phases of a business cycle.

Market condition is a set of conditions under which activity in the market proceeds at present. It is characterized by a certain ratio of supply and demand on goods of this look, and also the level and a ratio of the prices.

Summary review, or report. The main document with the generalizing indicators of a commodity market of national consumption. The forecast of indicators of an environment is given, the most characteristic tendencies are lit, interrelations of an environment of the separate commodity markets come to light.

Researches of any commodity market always proceed from existence on it a certain problem and is directed on its decision. All market problems can be classified as the general and private. The common market problems are characterized by violation of a state between supply and demand of all market, i.e. compliance between the general sizes of the commodity offer and cumulative solvent demand of the population. Private problems are characterized by emergence of discrepancy between supply and demand in the market of separate goods. At the heart of these problems – discrepancy of the range and quality of the offered goods, structures of solvent demand, violation of compliance to honey supply and demand.

Demand at the price is most often not elastic. The enterprises carry out purchases if they need any products or the equipment on the one hand, and, on the other hand, for them this main condition of realization of the activity.

At each this moment or the period of time the environment represents a peculiar result of interaction of long tendencies, cyclic and seasonal fluctuations, and also, influences of unregulated factors.

All above components form the price of consumption of goods which is not reduced only to the price at which the buyer acquires goods, and includes also such concepts as profitability of use of goods in use, prestigiousness of its trademark, etc.

Thematic (problem or commodity) review of an environment. The documents reflecting specifics of a concrete situation or the separate commodity market. The most actual problems typical for a row of goods, or a problem of the concrete commodity market come to light.

Tactical research is a purposeful continuous data collection and processing about a condition of economy and commodity market, the analysis and detection of features and tendencies of their functioning, forecasting of key parameters and promotion of possible alternatives of decision-making.

It is necessary to distinguish two levels of market capacity: potential and real. The valid market capacity is the first level which is defined by personal and public needs and reflects the volume of realization of goods adequate to them. Calculation of market capacity has to carry existential definiteness. Market capacity is formed under the influence of a set of factors.

Competitiveness – a complex of the consumer and cost (price) characteristics of goods defining its success in the market, i.e. advantage of these goods over others in the conditions of the wide offer of the competing goods analogs.